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Study of Marine Reserves:


Marine reserves: 

The Mediterranean Sea is exposed to multiple, cumulative, human threats that severely compromise the integrity of its marine ecological communities and biodiversity – a tough challenge for conservation management. The state-of-the-art tool of marine conservation management that has proven effective in restoring benthic marine ecosystems worldwide is the use of science-based marine protected areas (MPAs). Effective MPAs can boost not only biodiversity and act as an ecosystem “insurance policy”, but can potentially also serve as a source of renewal for depleted fisheries outside the protected area.


1. Human activity in an urban marine reserve (Shikmona, Haifa).
2. Testing marine reserve effectiveness in northern Israel.
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